Chen, L., Hu, P., Zhang, L. et al. Toxicity of graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes against human cells and zebrafish. Sci. China Chem.55, 2209–2216 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-012-4620-z
“Collectively, our work suggests that GO does actual toxicity to organisms posing potential environmental risks and the result is also shedding light on the geometrical structure-dependent toxicity of graphitic nanomaterials.” LINK
As mentioned before, graphene based nanomaterials possess unique properties, thereby, allowing for their applications in various fields, including wastewater treatment. However, the environmental and human exposure to these materials is growing owing to the progress in their prepartion and characterization. Many in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies were conducted and showed the interactions of graphene based nanomaterials with mammalian cells, microbes and animals. These indicated short and long term in vivo toxicity and eco-distribution of graphene (Ema et al., 2017; Guo and Mei, 2014; Lalwani et al., 2016; Ou et al., 2016; Seabra et al., 2014; Sanchez et al., 2012). Graphene based materials possess high chemical and biological activity and may generate reactive oxygen species in living systems. Their toxicity is owing to shape and greater surface area small size and depends on the material features, cell type, occurrence of functionalized groups, size and number of layers, dose, administration route time and temperature. It may cause oxidative stress, inflammatory response, physical destruction, cell membrane and DNA damages, autophagy necrosis, chromosomal aberrations, and apoptosis. Graphene side effects include pulmonary edema, acute lung injury, weight loss, effects on liver and spleen, immune cell infiltration, uptake, clearance, etc. The exposure of these materials to cabbage, tomato, red spinach plants may significantly inhibit their growth. The presence of reactive oxygen species may result in inflammation, oxidative stress and consequent damages to nucleic acids and proteins. Due to the non-biodegradable nature of graphene-based materials, these may be absorbed on the body macro-molecules and affect authoritarian of enzymes and other proteins mechanisms of (Nel et al., 2006). Currently, there is no strict instruction on dealing with the nanotoxicity of graphene based materials. Nevertheless, some points should be taken into account as safety guidelines, which comprise avoiding any unauthorized persons (guest, visitors, etc.) to enter a place where graphene-based materials are kept, isolating and ventilating the graphene working place, using respiration protection and gloves during working, proper transportation of the materials and disposal of toxic waste, etc. (Schmidt-Ott et al., 2010).
“Potential of graphene-based materials to combat COVID-19: properties, perspectives, and prospects” Link
Link To Article_October 2020_Potential of graphene-based materials to combat COVID-19: properties, perspectives, and prospects
“…To date, there is no medicine and vaccine available for COVID-19 treatment. While the development of medicines and vaccines are essentially and urgently required, what is also extremely important is the repurposing of smart materials to design effective systems for combating COVID-19. Graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) exhibit extraordinary physicochemical, electrical, optical, antiviral, antimicrobial, and other fascinating properties that warrant them as potential candidates for designing and development of high-performance components and devices required for COVID-19 pandemic and other futuristic calamities. In this article, we discuss the potential of graphene and GRMs for healthcare applications and how they may contribute to fighting against COVID-19.”